While the topics in UPSC remain broadly the same, what changes is how the question is put forth.

A 2015 batch IAS officer Dhivya Loganathan believes that working on question papers from previous years gives aspirants a good understanding of how questions can be framed.

She shares five such topics that are often repeated in the UPSC papers:

Legislations: Questions relating to popular acts and pending bills are often asked of aspirants. She suggests checking the PRS Legislative Research portal to stay updated.

Indian Freedom Struggle: Questions relating to freedom movements like Quit India, Non-Cooperation, and Salt Satyagraha are often asked.

NCERT textbooks and Indian Freedom Struggle by Bipin Chandra are resources aspirants could use for this section, says the IAS officer.

International treaties and conventions: Aspirants must have a good understanding of the various treaties and conventions like the RAMSAR Conventions on Wetlands in 1971.

Monuments and cultural sites of India: India has 38 World Heritage Sites. It is imperative for aspirants to know details including the year of construction and civilisation.

Geography: The focus while studying for this topic should be on learning about the various major river systems and their tributaries, and how they impact the agricultural sector.

The major trade routes and main industrial centres passing through the mountain passes are also equally important.